It was one of the ugliest incidents of the 1981 Springbok tour. Many groups and individuals that were involved in the 1981 movement had been present among the anti-Apartheid community for years, and a large number had already expressed their opposition to South African rugby tours when one was proposed in 1976. Namely, the red squad which were the infamous riot control group which were given the task of keeping the protesters at bay during the rugby tour. Robert Muldoon Muldoon was the 31st Prime minister of New Zealand and was in parliament from 1975 to 1984. As a result of the STST campaign, and the opposition mobilised by the AAM and the Fair Cricket Campaign, the tour was called off on 22 May. The 1981 Springbok Tour was a tour involving a NZ Rugby team and the South African Springboks. To manage the conflict, police were equipped with long batons, helmets, and riot shields. In 1970 Stop the Seventy Tour (STST) threatened to disrupt the South African cricket Springbok tour of England and Wales. Minto started the anti-tour organisation called HART or Halt All Racial Tours in 1969 and he became chairman of the organisation in 1980 just before the tour began. However, due to recent Apartheid policies in South Africa following the Soweto Riots, the New Zealand rugby team was not allowed to include some of their most valuable players in the team, for they were Maori.This caused huge outrage that resulted in one of New Zealand's largest ever protest movements. Influenced and influenced by anti-Springbok protests in other countries like Australia, Britain (see "Australians campaign against South African rugby tour in protest of apartheid, 1971" and "British Citizens Protest South African Sports Tours (Stop the Seventy Tour), 1969-1970") (1,2). He used the phrase “no politics in sport” which appealed to many New Zealanders especially those from rural parts. He was therefore 'pro-tour', and held the stern view that politics and sport should not mix. Muldoon resisted pressure to cancel the 1981 Springbok tour due to the 1973 tour being cancelled but as a result he was accused of breaking the 1977 Glen Eagles agreement New Zealand had signed. The most prolific anti-Springbok Tour group was HART (Halt All Racist Tours). The Springbok tour really made New Zealanders realise how important it is to treat everyone with respect and equality no matter what colour they were, even though there were many disputes New Zealand still was able to solve its racial problems step by step, forming a … The Catholic Church in Great Britain was another force in the campaign against the rugby tour. The police police were a key group in the protest actions surrounding the 1981 Springbok tour. Confrontations between rugby supporters and anti-Springbok tour protesters in New Zealand grew increasingly violent as the 1981 tour progressed. John Minto believed that the South African rugby team that was touring New Zealand was a white supremacist team. He got involved in anti-apartheid protests in Great Britain and was given the nickname “Hain the Pain” during his organizing in the 1969-70 Springbok tour. Twenty years on EUGENE BINGHAM investigates the bashing of three protesting clowns and why police closed ranks over the incident. In 1960-61 the South Africa national rugby union team toured England, France, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, playing a series of test matches, as well as games against club, regional, and representative teams. This leaflet made the case for boycotting the all-white South African team. Instead, it arose out of a group of young opponents of South Africa’s racialism, supporters of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), who decided to mount protests against the tour and against an earlier tour, in the winter of 1969-1970, by the South African all-white Springbok rugby team. 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